Attractive Force ##BEST##
F is the force of attractionG is the gravitational constant (6.67 10-11 Nm2/kg2),the mass of object 1 is m1,the mass of object 2 is m2,the distance between two objects is d.
It is important to rule out artifacts that could partially mimic a blackbody-induced acceleration. For example, spatially constant energy-level shifts induced by the blackbody radiation (rather than an a.c. Stark shift gradient, which produces a force) can be ruled out because they would be common to both interferometer arms, and thus cancel out (see the supplement). The pressure applied by hot background atoms from outgassing of the heated source mass removes a substantial fraction of the cold atoms from the detection region at its highest temperatures, so it is conceivably a component of the measured force on the remaining atoms. This, however, can be ruled out by multiple observations. First, this pressure should push the atoms away from the source, while the observed acceleration is towards the source. Second, it should depend exponentially on the source mass temperature; such an exponential component is not evident in the data. Finally, any scattering of hot background atoms with atoms that take part in the interferometer would be incoherent, and would reduce the visibility of our interference fringes. Figure 3, however, shows that the visibility is constant over our temperature range, ruling out scattering. This observation also confirms that absorption or stimulated emission of incoherent blackbody photons is negligible (see Fig. 4).
The force points radially inwards (except for atoms in an excited state, whose polarizability may be negative). To model the force in our experiment, we use analytical ray tracing to take the geometry of our setup into account (see the Methods section).
A more comprehensive analysis of systematic effects was carried out in ref. 23 using the same experimental setup. All effects analysed are found to be below the per cent level compared with the blackbody force.
P.H., M.J., V.X., O.S. and H.M. designed the experiment, made the measurements and carried out the data analysis. M.S., M.R.M. and H.R. carried out numerical simulations of the blackbody force. All authors contributed to the manuscript.
Almost all reported measurements of the attractive force exerted on metallic implants in magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imagers have been obtained at the portal. This study was done to determine whether the maximum force on an implant is at the portal. Horizontal attractive forces on needles were measured along the axis of the bore at various distances from the portal of a 0.3-T vertical-field magnet and 0.5- and 1.5-T solenoid magnets. Upward vertical forces along the top of the bore were also measured. The horizontal forces 40 cm in from the portals of the 0.5- and 1.5-T magnets were 70%-80% greater than the horizontal forces at the portal. The upward vertical force at the top of the 0.3-T magnet bore, 63 cm in from the portal, was 20 times the horizontal force at the portal and was twice the maximum force measured in the 0.5-T magnet. The maximum force was not at the portal.
Gravity is one major force that creates tides. In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton explained that ocean tides result from the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the oceans of the earth (Sumich, J.L., 1996).
The first reference to the nature of microscopic forces is found in Alexis Clairaut's work Théorie de la figure de la Terre, published in Paris in 1743. Other scientists who have contributed to the investigation of microscopic forces include: Laplace, Gauss, Maxwell and Boltzmann.
Information on intermolecular forces is obtained by macroscopic measurements of properties like viscosity, pressure, volume, temperature (PVT) data. The link to microscopic aspects is given by virial coefficients and Lennard-Jones potentials.
The attraction between cationic and anionic sites is a noncovalent, or intermolecular interaction which is usually referred to as ion pairing or salt bridge.It is essentially due to electrostatic forces, although in aqueous medium the association is driven by entropy and often even endothermic. Most salts form crystals with characteristic distances between the ions; in contrast to many other noncovalent interactions, salt bridges are not directional and show in the solid state usually contact determined only by the van der Waals radii of the ions.Inorganic as well as organic ions display in water at moderate ionic strength I similar salt bridge as association ΔG values around 5 to 6 kJ/mol for a 1:1 combination of anion and cation, almost independent of the nature (size, polarizability, etc.) of the ions. The ΔG values are additive and approximately a linear function of the charges, the interaction of e.g. a doubly charged phosphate anion with a single charged ammonium cation accounts for about 2x5 = 10 kJ/mol. The ΔG values depend on the ionic strength I of the solution, as described by the Debye-Hückel equation, at zero ionic strength one observes ΔG = 8 kJ/mol.
The van der Waals forces arise from interaction between uncharged atoms or molecules, leading not only to such phenomena as the cohesion of condensed phases and physical absorption of gases, but also to a universal force of attraction between macroscopic bodies.
The first contribution to van der Waals forces is due to electrostatic interactions between rotating permanent dipoles, quadrupoles (all molecules with symmetry lower than cubic), and multipoles. It is termed the Keesom interaction, named after Willem Hendrik Keesom. These forces originate from the attraction between permanent dipoles (dipolar molecules) and are temperature dependent.
They consist of attractive interactions between dipoles that are ensemble averaged over different rotational orientations of the dipoles. It is assumed that the molecules are constantly rotating and never get locked into place. This is a good assumption, but at some point molecules do get locked into place. The energy of a Keesom interaction depends on the inverse sixth power of the distance, unlike the interaction energy of two spatially fixed dipoles, which depends on the inverse third power of the distance. The Keesom interaction can only occur among molecules that possess permanent dipole moments, i.e., two polar molecules. Also Keesom interactions are very weak van der Waals interactions and do not occur in aqueous solutions that contain electrolytes. The angle averaged interaction is given by the following equation:
The second contribution is the induction (also termed polarization) or Debye force, arising from interactions between rotating permanent dipoles and from the polarizability of atoms and molecules (induced dipoles). These induced dipoles occur when one molecule with a permanent dipole repels another molecule's electrons. A molecule with permanent dipole can induce a dipole in a similar neighboring molecule and cause mutual attraction. Debye forces cannot occur between atoms. The forces between induced and permanent dipoles are not as temperature dependent as Keesom interactions because the induced dipole is free to shift and rotate around the polar molecule. The Debye induction effects and Keesom orientation effects are termed polar interactions.
The induced dipole forces appear from the induction (also termed polarization), which is the attractive interaction between a permanent multipole on one molecule with an induced (by the former di/multi-pole) 31 on another. This interaction is called the Debye force, named after Peter J. W. Debye.
This comparison is approximate. The actual relative strengths will vary depending on the molecules involved. For instance, the presence of water creates competing interactions that greatly weaken the strength of both ionic and hydrogen bonds. We may consider that for static systems, Ionic bonding and covalent bonding will always be stronger than intermolecular forces in any given substance. But it is not so for big moving systems like enzime molecules interacting with substrate reacting molecule. Here the numerouse intramolecular (most often - hydrogen bonds) bonds form active intermediate state where the intermolecular bonds make some of the covalent bond to be broken, while the others are formed, in this way procceding the thousands of enzimatic reactions, so important for living organisms.
Intermolecular forces are repulsive at short distances and attractive at long distances (see the Lennard-Jones potential). In a gas, the repulsive force chiefly has the effect of keeping two molecules from occupying the same volume. This gives a real gas a tendency to occupy a larger volume than an ideal gas at the same temperature and pressure. The attractive force draws molecules closer together and gives a real gas a tendency to occupy a smaller volume than an ideal gas. Which interaction is more important depends on temperature and pressure (see compressibility factor).
In a gas, the distances between molecules are generally large, so intermolecular forces have only a small effect. The attractive force is not overcome by the repulsive force, but by the thermal energy of the molecules. Temperature is the measure of thermal energy, so increasing temperature reduces the influence of the attractive force. In contrast, the influence of the repulsive force is essentially unaffected by temperature.
When a gas is compressed to increase its density, the influence of the attractive force increases. If the gas is made sufficiently dense, the attractions can become large enough to overcome the tendency of thermal motion to cause the molecules to disperse. Then the gas can condense to form a solid or liquid, i.e., a condensed phase. Lower temperature favors the formation of a condensed phase. In a condensed phase, there is very nearly a balance between the attractive and repulsive forces.
Electromagnetic fields can do things other than vibration. For instance, theelectric field produces an attractive or repulsive force between charged objects, whichvaries as the inverse square of distance. The force can change the momenta of theobjects. 041b061a72